The tunnel that is first the Hudson ended up being begun in 1874.

The tunnel that is first the Hudson ended up being begun in 1874.

Construction had been abandoned in 1891 as a result of fatalities (one blowout alone in 1880 killed 20 employees), restarted in 1903 by Alexander J. Cassatt for the Pennsylvania Railroad, and never completed until 1908.

All bridges that are such tunnels eradicate the dependence on ferry boats.